Selasa, 25 September 2012

Characteristics of Organism


There are various kinds of organisms exist on earth. One organism depends on other organisms. Human beings, animals, plants, fungi and microorganisms interact with each other. Although they have different ways of life, they have several similar basic characteristics to be called as organisms. The following are characteristics of organisms :
1.      Respiration (Breathing)
All organisms breathe. Breathing is an activity to obtain energy. Energy is generated from the burning process of food, source energy is a simple sugar which is called glucose. In general, the process requires oxygen (O2) that is taken from the air. Besides energy, breathing also produces the residues such as carbon dioxide (CO2). The carbon dioxide will be exhaled to the air.
a.    Insect                       b. Fish                      c. Bird                                     d. Plant
        Each of them breathes using trachea, gills, lungs, and stomata.
2.      The Need Food
Organisms use food as their energy source to replace the damaged body cells and regulate body’s activity. Each organisms has different type of food and gaining method depending on the type of organisms. To gain food, some animals predate other animals (predator) or eat the same type animal (cannibal). Based on its food source, animals are grouped into four, namely herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, and detritivores which eat decomposers or residues of other organisms.
3.      Moving and Reacting to Response
Each organisms can make movement on some parts or whole parts of their body, either by moving from one place to another place or staying at the same place. Movements is a response to certain stimulation (irritability). The moving ability of animals is more active than that of plants. This is because animals are equipped with skeletal muscle system and tools to move (extremities). Different of animals, movement on plants is more passive. In general, plant’s movement only occurs in certain body parts such as stem, roots and flowers.
4.      Growing and Developing

Growing is an irreversible process of gaining biomass of the body. The growth process can be measured by adding up the length, height or weight of the body. Since growth can be measured, the process is quantitative.
Besides grows, the organisms body also develops. Both process go along together. The developing process can be viewed from the change to adult or the change of body activity. The development in organism can not be measured because it is qualitative.
       5.      Reproduction
Organisms reproduce to maintain and preserve their species. Organism can reproduce either sexually or asexually, but some can reproduce in both ways. The matting phenomenon is also known as fertilization. In this phenomenon, the male and female gametes meet. In plants, the result of its sexual reproduction is seeds, while in animals, it is eggs or fetus. Asexual reproduction occurs without the meeting between male and female sexual cells. 
6.      Excretion
Besides producing useful substances for the body, organisms also produce residues. These residues should be excreted so they do not poison the body. Excreting organs of human beings and animals, among others, include kidney, liver, lung, skin and gills. The excreting organs of plants include stomata on the leaves and lenticels in the tree trunks.

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